The effects of the interaction between BMI and dyslipidemia on hypertension in adults

Hypertension affects more than one billion people worldwide, and that number is increasing, which makes this disease a serious public health problem worldwide1. In China, the prevalence of hypertension is high and rising, but the control rate is not satisfactory. Cardiovascular disease related to hypertension is still the main cause of death in Chinese adults2. A study showed that 44.7% of Chinese adults aged 35–75 suffer from hypertension3. Therefore, identifying the risk factors for hypertension and effective prevention are essential to reduce the burden on public health.

The effects of the interaction between BMI and dyslipidemia on hypertension in adults

To date, many studies have found that overweight, obesity and dyslipidemia are strongly associated with hypertension4. Excessive weight gain, especially weight gain associated with visceral fat gain, is the main risk factor for hypertension, accounting for 65% to 75% of the risk of essential hypertension in humans5. An increase in body mass index (BMI) leads to an increase in the risk of hypertension. In addition, studies have proven that a higher BMI is a risk factor for hypertension and dyslipidemia6. Furthermore, dyslipidemia is common in patients with hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and metabolic syndrome7, and elevated serum levels of total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and non-HDL cholesterol are all associated with an increased risk of hypertension8.

Hypertension is a disease with multifactorial influences, and there may be interactions among various influencing factors to exert their influence on hypertension. Previous studies have shown that the interaction between HbA1c and abdominal adiposity contributes to the development of hypertension9, the interaction between BMI and family history of hypertension has an impact on the risk of hypertension10, and there is a significant interaction between smoking and overweight with an impact on hypertension prevalence11. However, it is unknown whether there is an interaction between BMI and dyslipidemia to produce an effect on hypertension. Therefore, the present study used data from a cross-sectional survey to determine the associations among BMI, dyslipidemia, and hypertension and to explore the potential effect of the interaction between BMI and dyslipidemia on the prevalence of hypertension.