Citation: Clark SN, Bennett JE, Arku RE, Hill AG, Fink G, Adanu RM, et al.(2021) Small area variations and factors associated with blood pressure and body-mass index in adult women in Accra, Ghana: Bayesian spatial analysis of a representative population survey and census data. PLoS Med 18(11):e1003850. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1003850
Academic Editor: Margaret E. Kruk, Harvard University, UNITED STATES
Received: April 8, 2021; Accepted: October 14, 2021; Published:November 11, 2021
Copyright:© 2021 Clark et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Data Availability: To comply with ethics protocols of sharing individual-level health data along with small area geographic information, potential users of the WHSA survey data can request access from the Population and Poverty Research Network website (https://www.poppov.org/womens-health-study-of-accra-wave-ii-whsa-ii/). The 2010 10% random sample of the national Population and Housing Ghana census are available to the public online at the Ghana Statistical Service website (https://statsghana.gov.gh). Potential users of the EA map of Accra would have to request access directly from the Ghana Statistical Service through their website or at email@example.com.
Funding: Data collection in the WHSA was funded by the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (Health, Poverty and Place in Accra, Ghana, grant number R01 HD054906) and Hewlett/PRB (Reproductive and Overall Health Outcomes and Their Economic Consequences for Households in Accra, Ghana, PI: AH). Analyses undertaken in the paper were funded by the Wellcome Trust (Pathways to Equitable Healthy Cities project, 209376/Z/17/Z, PI: ME), the Presidents PhD scholarship from Imperial College London (SC) and the Canadian Institutes of Health Research PhD scholarship (DFS - 157830) (SC). Infrastructure support for the Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics was provided by the NIHR Imperial Biomedical Research Centre. For the purpose of Open Access, the authors have applied a CC BY public copyright licence to any Author Accepted Manuscript version arising from this submission. The funders had no role in the study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
Competing interests:The authors have declared that no competing interests exist. Author Rudolph Darko was unable to confirm their authorship contributions. On their behalf, the corresponding author has reported their contributions to the best of their knowledge.
Abbreviations:: 95% CrI,95% credible interval; AMA,Accra Metropolitan Area; BMI,body-mass index; BP,blood pressure; CAR,conditional autoregressive; COVID-19,Coronavirus Disease 2019; CVD,cardiovascular disease; DBP,diastolic blood pressure; DHS,Demographic and Health Survey; EA,enumeration area; IQR,interquartile range; MAE,median absolute error; MCMC,Markov chain Monte Carlo; ME,mean error; NCD,noncommunicable disease; PP,posterior probability; SBP,systolic blood pressure; SES,socioeconomic status; SSA,sub-Saharan Africa; STROBE,Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology; WHSA,Women’s Health Study of Accra; WHO,World Health Organization